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An overview.

(Links to references and details in next sections)


The linear no-threshold (LNT) model

  • Has been used as the basis for radiation safety practices since the 1950s

  • Still recommended and used by influential international and national advisory and regulatory bodies

  • Justified as being a conservative approach 


What does evidence show? 

Many publications show:

  • reduction of cancers following low-dose radiation exposures (support for radiation hormesis) or a large threshold dose for increased cancers, in contradiction to the LNT model (Radiation hormesis is the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation are beneficial)

Other publications show:

  • increased cancer risk from low-dose radiation (support for the LNT model), but, major flaws have been identified in such publications, invalidating or raising major doubts about the validity of their conclusions


Definitive conclusion from all the published data

  • low-dose radiation does not increase cancer risk and low-dose radiation may reduce cancers.


Consequences of using the LNT model? 

Considerable harm to the public, due to actions/inactions resulting from fear/concerns regarding even very low levels of radiation

  1. Blocked study of low-dose radiation for control of currently intractable diseases including cancer, even when evidence indicated promise of low-dose radiation

  2. Stifled development of clean, safe, cheap nuclear power in spite of its safety record due to ratcheting up of regulations, vastly increased costs, and increased concerns

  3. Led to panic evacuation and prolongation of evacuation in the aftermath of nuclear reactor accidents causing large number of immediate casualties but no benefit

  4. Increased the likelihood of misdiagnoses and missed diagnoses due to diagnostic studies involving use of radiation not being performed or being performed with reduced exposure and thus reduced image quality


Thus, use of the LNT model is NOT a conservative approach.


Discarding of the LNT model would result in

Tremendous benefits to the public

  1. Improved health: potential for less diseases, better diagnostics

  2. Safer, cleaner, inexpensive, abundant power; better economic development

  3. Reduced costs for all radiation applications


Discarding the LNT model will not be easy

  1. LNT model has been in use for over fifty years

  2. Influential advisory bodies have repeatedly endorsed its use, quoting faulty and/or discredited evidence, and ignoring published evidence against it

  3. Plenty of publicity in popular media for reports of advisory bodies and faulty publications

  4. Little publicity for valid evidence against the LNT model

  5. Since the public have been misinformed over the years, a vast majority of them would believe in the LNT model


Until public misunderstanding (which has led to radiophobia*) is corrected, it would not be possible to discard the LNT model, since governments would face large objections from the public.


[*Radiophobia is an abnormal fear of ionizing radiation. While such radiation would be harmful at high exposure levels, poor information or understanding may cause unnecessary or irrational fear of low levels of ionizing radiation.] 


  • Hence our focus is on educating the public on the health effects of ionizing radiation, to correct the misunderstanding


XLNT Foundation is seeking the support of those that would benefit from the change - the public, the professionals, and the enterprises that utilize and benefit from radiation use - to coordinate the efforts to overcome the LNT model problem. 


Our Mission: To educate the public on the observed beneficial effects of low-dose ionizing radiation, and to campaign for eliminating use of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model in order to enhance public health.


Next Section:  What is the LNT Model?

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